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AC Goal Tracker
UX design for an application which help Achievement Club members make progress.
Introduction to AC

United Way is an organization which engage and bring together people and resources to drive sustainable improvements in the well-being of children, families and individuals in the community. And it uses the fund to run several local programs. Achievement Club (AC) is one of these important programs. The goal of Achievement Club (AC) is to assist newly-housed homeless people in setting and achieving goals and fostering the development of constructive life skills. Our target users are Julia Kelly—along with other similar AC moderators—and their clients.

Problems to solve

Some AC members report struggling with motivation, impeding their progress in achieving their goals. Therefore we develop a non-intrusive application to motivate goal completion. The application will enable the users to have the abilities of setting and readjusting their goals (and sub-goals), recording and sharing their progress, and reminding themselves of their incentives and current goal-related responsibilities.

Users and requirement (Post-Design Research)
User study
Our users will be AC members and to know them better, we run a questionnaire based user study. For our study, we had 11 subjects, all Achievement Club members. We chose this group for involvement in our research since they are the potential target users of our system. According to the demographic survey, their ages range from 7 to 45, they are generally younger, and nine of them are female, while only two are male. Out of all 11 members of the group, only 7 subjects came to the meeting that we observed. They were all female African Americans, two of which brought their kids. The remaining 4 people did not come due to transportation or personal matters.

Most of the questions that we chose to put in the questionnaire are related to the potential tasks of our system. The task-related questions help us determine whether the tasks are truly meaningful to our users and how to make better design decisions. The obstacle-related question gives us insights about potential new tasks used to increase goal completion rate. Finally, the question about the interface gives us an understanding of the users’ habits and provides a point of reference about which platform to choose.
All of the questions are close-ended questions, which are easier and faster to answer. The results are all quantitative.

To see the questionnaire, click HERE.

Except for the demographic data of the subjects which is mentioned in ‘Subject’ section, the in-person observation mainly focuses on the devices that are used in their activity room, their behavior, and the environment. We learned that they are smartphone users and have access to a public computer and projectors. There is a possibility that we can make smartphone applications, in addition to using projectors and computers as the secondary interfaces of our system.

We also performed a literature review, including articles about how to encourage and help people finish their goals and information about our potential users. In terms of task completion, we learned that inspiring messages are effective, positive reminders work better than negative, and when people share things on social network, they are more likely to complete their goals (Harkin et al., 2016). Additionally, we discovered that people who plan through the steps of their goals are more likely to complete their goals and have more realistic expectations (Koole & van't Spijker, 2000).
We also aimed to learn more about our previously-homeless clientele. Homeless people are very sensitive and susceptible to future harm (Woelfer, 2014). When speaking to young homeless people, there were several recurring values of helpfulness and connectedness. In terms of working towards a goal, minorities were the most motivated by future plans and how their current actions can aid them to achieve them (Andriessen, 2006).
These insights show that for increasing task completion it is a good idea to involve encouraging and positive content (text, images, or multimedia) to emotionally support the users. Meanwhile, we should also note ‘setting goal steps’ and ‘sharing with others’ as important tasks in our system. In order to invite users to use our system, we need to consider their feelings. We need to try to make them feel secure, safe, and not helpless, probably by embedding social elements which link them to each other.

User Characteristics
Each user has access to a smartphone and are mobile app friendly. This means that they are not afraid to use mobile applications in their daily life. Six of the seven surveyed users carry smartphone with them and use their phones for application.
The users always set goals for completing their tasks. In Survey, all of the surveyed users set goals and kept track of these goals on paper.
They understood that writing down all the steps and keeping track of the progress could help them to reach their goals, according to the results of Survey.
They should have the need to readjust their goal steps at least once a week and some of them even readjust every hour based on Survey.
The clients should be willing to accept a smartphone application as a tool to organize and manage their goals. According to the Survey, all of respondents are likely to use a smartphone application to organize their goals.
They need enough motivation to help them achieve goals. In Survey, 4 of the 7 respondents said that the lack of enough motivation and the difficulty of staying motivated are top challenges that they often face when setting goals.
They are dependent on Achievement Club to achieve their goals. The data in Survey #6 indicates the majority of our clients chose “Achievement Club” as the most effective support to help them finish their goals, as compared to family, friends, and themselves.
They should be willing to share their achievements and listen to others’ achievements. According to Survey, basically all of respondents would like to share the results of their accomplishments and see other’s accomplishments.

Primary Stakeholders
Achievement Club clients: The Achievement Club clients are currently those setting the goals and working towards achieving their goals.
Secondary Stakeholders
Julia Kelly and other Achievement Club workshop managers: According to the presentation from Julia, they help Club members to set goals, take responsibility for follow-ups, and track the process of the members’ goals after the workshop.
By tracking and analyzing the members’ progress of a goal, they could help readjust the goals of their members, in addition to checking to make sure that they actually achieve their sub-goals.
Tertiary Stakeholders
Protip (Julia’s boss): The boss would decide the funding based on the influence and the results of the workshop.
Users’ Family/Friends: According to Survey #6, family or friends would assist our clients to achieve their goals.
People/Organizations Involved in Completing Users’ Goals: These parties would be involved due to their reliance on the success or failure of the user completing their goal.

Task analysis
Hierarchical task analysis
Within the current system, all the tasks are divided into 4 sections: Create a goal, Get a goal approved, Complete a goal and Revise goal steps. 1. Create a goal 2. Get a goal approved 3. Complete a goal 4. Revise goal steps Usage Senarios
Scenario 1 - New Member
Sam is 42 years old and he is an army veteran. With the help of United Way's Regional Commission on Homelessness' Vets Connect program, Sam has a place to live. United Way also wants to introduce him to the Achievement Club. Julia is one of the Achievement Club's advisors, and Sam is a part of her team. Julia took Sam out to dinner at Tony Roma's for their first meeting to get to know each other. After their dinner, Julia gave Tony a goal worksheet and explained how the Achievement Club works. Sam took a moment to think about what he wants to accomplish. He always wanted to learn how to play “More than Words” by Extreme on guitar. So he wrote 'Play “More Than Words” by Extreme on the guitar' as his goal and he put down 'Save up $100 dollars', 'Buy a guitar and beginner chord book', and 'Play three times a week' as his steps.

Scenario 2 - Progress Reporting
Christina is 40 years old and is married to Richard. They have two children; Kevin is 13 years old and Olivia is 17 years old. They have been a part of the Achievement Club for a month and Christina has achieved two goals already. Christina's first goal was getting her very first driver's license because she wanted to have an ID card. Her second goal was to save $50 from her monthly spending. Now she has a new goal. The new goal is to attend a local church every Sunday for a month without skipping a session. In order to prove her consistency to her Achievement Club advisor Julia, Christina takes a photo with her local church friends using her smartphone and sends a text message to Julia with the photo attachment after her service in order to update Julia on her progress.

Scenario 3 - Goal Completion
Maya is 35 years old and is a single mom with one son. Her son's name is James and he is 10 years old. Both Maya and James are part of the Achievement Club. They had their first meeting with Julia, the Achievement Club advisor, four weeks ago and today is the 3rd time meeting with Julia. Maya always thought that she needed to lose some weight to begin a healthier lifestyle and practice healthy eating habits. Her current goal is losing 10 pounds, and it is still in progress. On the other hand, James always has trouble with his math class and he has received mostly Ds and a few of Cs on his previous math tests. So, James set a goal to get a B on his next math test. James took his exam earlier this week and received a B on the exam. James showed his math exam with a B to Julia during their third meeting and she gave him a $20 GameStop gift card as a reward, as promised, for achieving his goal. Now, James wants to set a new goal to receive an A on his next math test.

Scenario 4 - Goal Revision
Brian is 65 years old and is an army veteran. With the help of United Way's Regional Commission on Homelessness' Vets Connect program, Brian got a place to live in the East Point area. He also met his Achievement Club advisor, Julia, last week for the first time and set his first goal to receive his new driver's license so that he can drive again. His driver's license was taken away from him 20 years ago due to drunk driving. However, Brian could not get his driver's license back because the Georgia Service has a law that the driver must be under 65 years old to get a driver's license. Since his goal is legally impossible to achieve, he needs to come up with an alternative goal. Brian called Julia about this limitation and decided to set an alternative goal of learning how to ride a bicycle. He crossed out the old goal on his goal sheet and wrote 'learn how to ride a bicycle' as a new goal.

Existing system
The current goal tracker that the Achievement Club uses is a plain sheet of paper where users state their goal, a couple of steps to get started and more steps to make progress. Each step has a name, a type of proof to show Ms. Kelly, and the date which it was completed. With this sheet of paper, one can easily display it in an easy-to-see area, such as a door or counter, in addition to adding their own customizations (i.e. doodles, side notes) very easily. This technology is also extremely lightweight and mobile, and it is very cheap for Ms. Kelly to make for her clients. However, because of its nature, the goal sheet is also very easy to lose and inflexible in terms of re-ordering and organizing sub-goals. The piece of paper by itself is not very motivating and make is difficult to share progress or synchronize with other participants in the program.

Usability Criteria
1. Effectiveness: The current paper goal sheet does not have a great impact on motivating an individual to complete a goal as compared to the regular in-person meetings with Julia and the incentives of actually achieving the goal. Effectiveness will be used as a metric to assess how much the new system helps a client to achieve his/her goal. This can be measured by having the users review the interface to tell us how effective their experience was using the survey, application review, etc.
2. Efficiency: The current paper form has a limited number of fields available for filling out steps and tasks to work towards the goal, hence placing a restriction on the number of steps a person may take towards achieving the goal or making them feel as if they need to fill in all the steps on the worksheet. Coming up with a goal and steps to take towards achieving the goal take more time than it does for the client to actually write down what he/she wants to do on the form. However, updating the 'date completed' and 'proof' sections can be done instantly, once the task is actually completed. The efficiency will be used to assess how much time a client has to spend on each task which is given. This can be measured by analyzing each interface to see how long it takes to complete a task (e.g. set a goal, update a goal, etc.).
3. Learnability: The current paper goal sheet is easy to understand from the start since Julia meets all of her Achievement Club clients in person to explain how the Achievement Club works and what the club's purpose is. Additionally, she goes over the paper form with her clients to explain what kind of goals they can set and what kind of steps the clients need to complete the goal. The learnability will be used to assess how easy it is for a client to learn to use the new system. This can be measured by analyzing each interface to see how long it takes a new user to learn how to use it.
4. Memorability: The current paper goal form is not complicated to use because it is a simple piece of paper with goals sections and several progress sections, and it never changes since the interface is mostly static. The memorability will be used to assess how easy it is for a client to remember how to use the new system without trying to remember how to use it or going over a tutorial. This can be measured by analyzing each interface to see how long it takes a current user to complete each task without looking up the previous task.
5. Understandability: The contents of the current system are straightforward. A client is expected to write one or two goals he/she wants to achieve for the Get Started section and write several steps he/she has to take to achieve the goal in the Make Progress section. Additionally, Julia will go over the paper form with her clients to determine that they understand what they have to fill out on the form. The understandability metric will be used to assess how easy it is for a client to understand the interface elements of the new system and the purpose of the new system. This can be measured by having new users review the interface after trying it without previously knowing what it does.
6. Flexibility: The current paper goal sheet has a limited number of ways to record the user's goals and steps. The paper form has only two goal sections and ten step sections which are shared between the two goals. If a client wants to add another goal, he/she has to either use another paper goal sheet or write it outside of the goal section box. The flexibility metric will be used to assess whether or not the interface can be adjusted to the needs and behavior of each client. This can be measured by having the users review the interface to tell us how the its flexibility can be adjusted for their usage and what they feel they could not do with the shown interface.
From the research above, we understand our users, tasks, and context better,which help to clarify the requirments.

Our users always set goals, use paper or other tools to record goals, and check them frequently (hourly or daily), which means that the tracking and reminding system we are trying to design matches their needs and might be frequently used. Additionally, they are hardly annoyed by automatic reminders. At the moment, they are using various tools to remind themselves of tasks—physical tools (e.g. planner/desk calendar, Post-Its/paper), as well as digital products (e.g. digital calendar, phone applications). However, they are all very open-minded about using smartphone applications to help them. The diversity in the types of applications available shows us that there is no current standard in goal-setting technology. Therefore, it would be meaningful to design a new system for them.
According to the survey and observation, almost all of our users have smartphones and always carry smartphones with them. They also have a positive attitude toward high-tech assistance, which gives us a solid foundation for establishing our main tasks and primary interface (i.e. the smartphone). The survey results show us that the AC members are willing to share and see others’ accomplishments, which indicates that social elements will be good motivation and should be incorporated into the system.
The frequency of readjusting goal steps is extremely person-dependent; however, all of the subjects would readjust their goal at least once. This shows that readjustment is a task that cannot be ignored and needs to be incorporated into whatever system that they use.
The tasks in the current Achievement Club goal sheet include ‘create a goal’, ‘get goal approved’, ‘complete goal steps’, and ‘revise the goal’. There is a lot of approval processes involved, which can take a long time. We can help to improve efficiency by embedding some of these approval processes into our system.
From the analysis of existing systems, we find the need for highly customized steps and goal setting with it working for both numerically- and non-numerically-tracked goals. The way to measure outcomes should also be flexible and not limited to binary outcomes.
And as a result, our system will support the following core tasks (#1-2) and features (#3-6):
1. Setting goals and goal steps.
2. Updating goals.
3. Setting reminders to complete goal steps.
4. Sharing goals with others.
5. Viewing the achievements of other users.
6. Viewing rewards for completion.
Design Alternatives
We brainstorm and come up with three different interfaces: Mobile Interface, Bulletin Board and Website Interface.

Mobile Interface
When users first log in our mobile application, the mobile interface would guide them to set up their first goal. After users click the “Add First Goal” button on the interface, they are required to name their goal. They can either completely customize the goal or choose a goal template from our list of suggestions (such as getting fit, getting a driving license, etc.). Then users fill in their steps in order to break down the main goal. The application will use a specified “amount” as a way to track each step, so when the users add a new step, they are required to enter the numerical amount that they need to complete the step. After this, users can add a reminder for the goal. Now the goal was created and will be shown in the “In Progress” tab on the “Home” page of the application. On the “Home” page, finished goals can also be viewed in “Finish” tab. When tracking goals, users add the amount to raise the bar of each step and the bar of goal will also be changed according to the progress of the steps. Users can share their progress by clicking the “share” icon and then the goal they are sharing will be displayed on the “Community” page. On the “Community” page, users can also see the goals shared by others. This interface will be used from a smartphone, allowing users to track and readjust their goals and steps any time they have their phone with them.

Bulletin Board On each of the “in progress” memos, an AC member will write down his goal and current step within the goal, with the number of this step, and how many steps are there in total. There will also be a due date and description of the reward he will get for completing this step in time.
Once a step is completed and validated by the AC staff, a check mark will be written on that memo. The user can also choose to pin the evidence or deliverable of this step to the memo, if applicable. Afterwards, the memo for the next step will be pinned in front of the old memos, being presented on the top of that memo stack. The memos are primarily for setting, updating, and tracking users’ progress towards their goals, but they also can be used to reorganize and share progress.
On each of the “goal completers” posts, an AC member will write down his achieved goal and the reward he received for completing it. He can also write down his feelings about finally making his way to his destination. Some related, meaningful pictures and deliverables could be also attached here. These posts are primarily for archiving and sharing users’ achievement, enable others to view peers’ achievements. On each of the “seeking/wanna help?” post-its, an AC member will write down a problem that he encounters while completing his goal, seeking help. He will probably leave his contact information for others to reach out to him. These memos are primarily for connecting peers and helping users solve problems. The bulletin board will also be managed by AC staff members and can be decorated with words of encouragement.

Website Interface
The web interface is a simple website online that can be access via any modern computer with internet access and a web browser, in addition to having a keyboard and mouse for input. The website can fulfill all of our tasks, enabling users to create new goals, update the progress of their goals, share their achievements, set reminders, view rewards, and seek others’ achievements. Once the user inputs their goals onto the website, they can explore the visual interface which lists the goals and their substeps on their homepage. They also have the option of going to the “Explore” page which allows the user to view a leaderboard of sorts, providing a link to the community and scaffolding support from the community to further their own progress. Their profile allows for the user to input information about themselves so others using the website will be able to either identify them from the AC meetings or at least create an anonymous identity that still allows them to receive support.

Design Assessment
To choose one from these three, we assess them using 6 usability criteria. The result is in the table below:

According to the results of usability assessments, the website is the best option. Although the website prototype has the highest quantitative assessment scores, our design has to consider the Achievement Club members' accessibility to each prototype. From the previous research, a large majority of club members have smartphones but only a small portion of members have Internet access. Due to this limitation, it is hence appropriate to conclude that the mobile application is the best interface for the club members.
We developed this prototype to help us evaluate our three main tasks: setting a goal, updating progress towards the goal, and sharing the progress that was made. We took advantage of a prototyping tool ( in our usability testing phase to create a high-fidelity electronic prototype.

Setting a goal
To create a new goal after opening the application, the user selects “ADD FIRST GOAL” in the middle of the “Home” screen. This screen then moves to the “Create” screen, which includes an input area for “What do you want to track?” or “Choose a template”. In our prototype, the user would tap the input area underneath the prompt “What do you want to track?”, which automatically populates the area with the goal they will be asked to create.

To set the goal steps after creating a goal, the user is brought to the “Add Steps” screen. At the top of this screen, underneath the heading, is “Add steps for ‘Goal’” with the steps underneath. Each step has an input area to put in the name of the step and a separate input area for the amount of times this step will need to be completed. There is also a “Set due date” link under each step for inputting a due date, which is optional, for that specific step. At the bottom of the screen is a button that allows you to select more steps as needed. In our prototype, pressing the input areas for each step will automatically populate that area with the step they are asked to create.

To set a reminder after creating a goal and setting goal steps, the user is brought to the “Add Reminder” screen. At the top of this screen, underneath the heading, is “Please create a reminder” with options of “Hour”, “Day”, and “Week”. The user will have to select “Hour”, which brings up an option to manipulate the time of day. In our prototype, once the user selects “Hour”, the time will automatically be populated.

Recording progress
In our prototype, reminders pop up on the main phone screen as a notification. The user can tap this notification which will bring up the home screen of our application. To record goal progress, the user touches the step that needs to be updated. This reveals three options underneath the step, which are “Increase”, “Edit”, and “Share”. The user would select “Increase” to update their goal progress and this would be recorded by the application by increasing the bar associated with that goal step.

Sharing progress progress
To share goal progress, the user selects the goal step that they want to share. Once they tap the desired step, this reveals three options underneath the step (“Increase”, “Edit”, and “Share”). The user would tap “Share”. This brings up the “Share” screen. The user can input text under the “What’s on your mind?” In our prototype, selecting this input area automatically populates it with text. Pressing the “+” button allows the user to upload a picture to the system. In our prototype, a picture is automatically inserted when the “+” button is pressed. The user can tap the Facebook and/or Twitter icons to also share the progress on those programs. If the user does not select either of those options, the progress is shared within the app only (with the AC members). After sharing their progress, the user is brought to the “Community” screen, which allows them to view the progress they shared as well as the progress shared by other users.

Usability criteria
we have 6 usability criteria: effectiveness, efficiency, learnability, memorability, understandability, and flexibility. We are only able to measure 3 (effectiveness, learnability, and understandability) out of the 6 usability criteria due to the limitations of our prototype.
Efficiency - assess how much time a user has to spend on each task which is given but cannot be measured during prototype testing due to the time limitation. We are given only a half hour for the whole assessment. This is not enough time for a subject to become expert user for both systems. Therefore we are not able to acquire the data of the time or clicks a user has to spend on the tasks we are going to test.
Flexibility - can be measured by having the users review the interface to tell us how the flexibility can be adjusted for their usage but this cannot be measured due to the limitations of the prototype and scenarios. The current prototype does not support any customization for a user to test on.
Memorability - can be measured by analyzing each interface to see how long it takes a current user to complete each task without looking up the previous tasks but this has the same time limitation as efficiency. Currently, we are only given about an half hour to run whole assessment which is not enough time for us to test another set of similar tasks for the memorability. Additionally, we will not be exposing the user to the application multiple times during a session. We have a half hour schedule for the consent form, three tasks, questionnaire, and a short interview for each subject user.

In order to test the prototype on our subjects, we came up with different usability testing methods to collect data. The prototype testing will collect the number of clicks (also indicating number of wrong clicks when compared to the minimum number of clicks), task-completion time, any comments from the user thinking out loud, error click location, number of questions asked during a task, answers from the questionnaire (Appendix: Section A), and any information retrieved from a short debriefing interview after the questionnaire. The figure below is the data sheet table for the first task. We divided each task into multiple pages because we want to collect users' interactions and experiences on each page not just the whole task.

Data and interpretation
In order to test the prototype on our subjects, we came up with different usability testing methods to collect data. The prototype testing will collect the number of clicks (also indicating number of wrong clicks when compared to the minimum number of clicks), task-completion time, any comments from the user thinking out loud, error click location, number of questions asked during a task, answers from the questionnaire (Appendix: Section A), and any information retrieved from a short debriefing interview after the questionnaire. The figure below is the data sheet table for the first task. We divided each task into multiple pages because we want to collect users' interactions and experiences on each page not just the whole task.
Effectiveness - can be measured by having the users review the interface to tell us how effective their experience was throughout the questionnaire. Questions 20 through 25 from the questionnaire provide us with the users’ experiences with our prototype. The subjects are asked to select one of the options given and provide a reason. By analyzing the feedback and answer choices from a subject user, we can measure the expected effectiveness of the prototype.

Learnability - can be measured by analyzing how long it takes a new user to learn how to use it. There are two methods that can be used to measure this usability criteria: completion time and number of clicks.We will be comparing the task-completion time and number of clicks between “master” users (Team LATTE members) and subject users using exactly the same task. We will use the master users' times and the minimum number of clicks as benchmarks to determine the learnability criteria. In fact, the subject users' task-completion times include the time they spend on thinking aloud and the time for them to understand how to use the prototype itself, such as understanding the automatic text-filling feature on this prototype. This is one limitation of measuring accurate learnability using the current prototype. However, we try to mitigate the impact that the thinking out loud protocol has on the subject users' task-completion time by having the master users talk aloud while measuring the time spent on tasks.

Understandability - can be measured by having new users review the interfaces after trying it without previously knowing what it does. There are three methods that can be used to measure this usability criteria: thinking out loud, error click location, and number of questions the subjects ask during a given task. By encouraging a user to think out loud, we can understand how the user thinks about the UI components of the current page and how much information a user gained from the page. In addition, this method allows us to do iterative design to improve the features which do not meet our initial intention. However, our written scenarios and protocol have to be clear enough to make sure that any confusion that the subject experiences comes from the prototype itself, not the task description. Secondly, we are going to record the location of interfaces or icons whenever a user clicks on an incorrect location during a given task. A user may click a random icon or location to interact with our prototype during the test but this data allows us to understand the user’s tendencies and the level of understanding of the user. Lastly, the number of questions asked from a subject user while completing a task is crucial information because it tells us whether or not the user is completely lost at the current page. In fact, our prototype has a limitation of having a built-in feature which reveals correct click positions after clicking incorrect areas. This built-in functionality can limit the number of questions asked by users without them understanding how to complete a task, in addition to lessening the number of incorrect clicks.

Benchmark & Measurement
The figure below is the benchmark completion times and the minimum number of clicks for each task. We considered us as master users of our prototype and followed each task using the “think out loud” method to measure task-completion time. The values in these tables are the average time of all members’ task-completion times. The number of clicks are the minimum required to complete each task. Outcome data and statistic analysis
To check the report, click HERE.

The results and discussion show that the prototype requires several improvements, in addition to the selection of a different subject pool. Our application’s effectiveness heavily relies on the types of subjects. As we mentioned earlier, 10 out of 11 subjects were not target users (no relationship with the Achievement Club) and only 1 subject was a United Way employee who is familiar with the Achievement Club. Although the overall opinion of our 11 subjects was that the application was not extremely effective, this result does not have a huge impact on our prototype due to the fact that most of them are not target users. Thus, we conclude that our prototype is not effective for non-targeted users but still has a chance to be effective for Achievement Club members.The actual effectiveness of our prototype should be measured by running the usability testing on the Achievement Club members.

Our findings also show that learnability and understandability have a strong correlation. If a user has difficulty understanding what they have to do, then they will either take time or try to click on the interface to learn what it is that they have to do. As we mentioned earlier, the subjects had the most difficulty understanding the Add Steps from benchmark task 1, Main-Extended (upload progress) from the benchmark task 2, and Upload from the benchmark task 3. Tables 2 and 3 also show that these pages have high Cohen's d values, which indicates that they could be problem areas. In fact, Add Steps caused many subjects confusion due to lack of instructions. Our scenario does not mention anything about the due dates, and the prototype automatically fills out a seemingly arbitrary number below each step. Additionally, the prototype does not give any feedback or hints that the adding steps page is completed. Therefore, we need to add instructions about the due date, the numbers displayed below each step’s name, and add a clear indicator which guides the user to the next page.

Furthermore, the results show that many subjects thought that they had to click the 'edit' button to record their progress for completing the 'Pass the permit test' instead of clicking the (correct) 'increase' button on Main-Extended (upload progress) from benchmark task 2. The word 'increase' was not very suitable since the subjects did not see any connection between 'increase' and 'completing'. One solution that we can apply to our prototype is to improve the mapping between the button and the action that it will perform. We can substitute the ‘increase’ button with a 'complete' button when a user is updating their last progress step (e.g. 4/5 is completed and they are updating again). This improvement can provide more flexible goal step progression (i.e. not all steps need to be completed after one update), while having a coherent meaning with the users.

In addition, learnability and understandability were not the cause of the problem for the Upload page for benchmark task 3. A few subjects were not able to click the Facebook icon before adding the description due to limitations of the prototype. If we had a higher fidelity prototype (i.e. an actual application instead of interactive screenshots) for the usability testings, then the subjects would have spent less time and effort on understanding the limitations of the prototype during the usability testing.

The results of learnability and understandability can be biased due to the subject pool. Ten out of eleven subjects were Georgia Tech students who are familiar with modern smartphones and applications, and 4 out of 10 subjects are classmates who are familiar with the topic of our study. Although the effectiveness of our prototype was not as good as learnability and understandability, the results might vary if we have a chance to run usability testing on the targeted users (the Achievement Club members). We found that our prototype requires some modification and improvement, but this is the reason we had our usability testing in the first place. We wanted to expose subjects to our prototype to see how well they can perform the desired tasks. This feedback allows us to improve the current prototype so that we can continue the iterative design cycle.